（1长安大学 环境科学与工程学院，陕西 西安 710054；2长安大学 ，陕西西安 710054； 3矿山地质灾害成灾机理与防控重点实验室，陕西 西安 710065；4陕西省地质环境监测总站，陕西 西安 710054；5陕西省地质调查院，陕西 西安 710065；6西北有色地质研究院，陕西 西安 710054）
结果：（1）1990-2011年研究区地表水体面积持续减少，1990年全区水体面积162.63km2，2001年减少至133.80 km2，2011年继续减少至103.84 km2，每10年减少约30km2，导致湖泊水库等面状水域收缩，面积变小，河流变窄或断流、坑塘消失等。（2）伴随水体面积减少湿地面积在1990年至2001年从55.86 km2增加到92.68km2，增加65.91%，但2001年后至2011年间，湿地面积减少至45.49 km2，减少了50.92%。（3）煤炭开采、气候、水源地开采和生态需水等因素是造成研究区地表水体及湿地面积呈规律性变化的主要驱动力，各因素权重分别为，煤炭开采破坏含水层结构，使大量地下水涌入矿井，降低地下水位减少对地表水的补给，进而驱使地表水体面积缩减，是主要驱动力之一。
Objectives: The Yushenfu mining area is located in the Maowusu desert and the loess plateau interchange zone, the ecological environment is very fragile. It is the surface water such as lake, Haizi(very small lake), reservoir, river mainly distributed in desert shoal, and wetlands located over a certain range of surface water that play an important role for the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River energy and chemical industry, Maowusu desert and the Ordos Plateau ecosystem, water resources regulation and local climate and environmental stability. In recent years, due to human activities, climate change and other reasons, the regional groundwater level has been declining, which had a greater impact on the surface water and wetlands and its distribution. Based on the study of surface water circulation in Yushenfu mining area, this paper uses Spot satellite image to interpret the wetland and water area of Yu Shenfu mining area, and analyze the evolution of surface water and wetlands and its driving force.
Methods: Firstly, the area data of surface water and wetland in 1990, 2001 and 2011 were extracted by remote sensing image data. Based on the data and field investigation, the remote sensing interpretation method was used to visualize the solution. Then we take remote sensing image map as the basic map to carry out remote sensing interpretation work. Secondly , use MAPGIS as a platform to compose various kinds of interpretation results, and carry out spatial superposition analysis to explore the temporal and spatial variation of surface water and wetland. Finally, the driving force of the change of wetland area is analyzed, and the weight of each driving force factor is determined by expert scoring method.
Results: (1)From 1990 to 2011, the surface area was continually decreased. In 1990, the water area of the whole area was 162.63km2, and in 2001, it was reduced to 133.80 km2,103.84 km2 in 2011, there was a reduction of about 30km2 per10 years, leading to lake water contraction, river narrowed or broken.(2) The area of wetland with the decrease of water area increased from 55.86 km2 to 92.68 km2 in 1990-2001, increased by 65.91%. However, the wetland area decreased to 45.49 km2 after 2001 to 2011,decreased by 50.92%.(3) Coal mining, climate, water source and ecological water demand are the main driving forces for the regular change of surface water and wetland in the study area. The weight of each factor is,respectively, it is the coal mining that destroyed the aquifer structure and made a large influx of groundwater Mine, reduced the groundwater level, and thus drived the surface water area reduction, is one of the main driving force.
Conclusions: The change of wetland and surface water can be regarded as the result of continuous development and change of groundwater system. The remote sensing technology has good timeliness, by comparing and analyzing the remote sensing data of different periods, we can master the temporal and spatial variation of surface water and wetland to guide the driving force analysis. In order to reduce the rate of surface water wetland reduction in Yushenfu mining area, it is necessary to implement water-preserved coal mining technology, promote water conservation and reduce the distribution of high water consumption vegetation.